If any such presentiment of uselessness arises, reasonable men will not apply themselves to the study of the book. By stating the subject matter etc. Reasonable men are thus incited to take action. Thus it is clear that the connection be- tween the subject matter and the purpose is stated in order that the book may be credited with efficiency, since such consideration incites hmnan activity.
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Epistemology[ edit ] The time of the Buddha Gautama was a lively intellectual culture with many differing philosophical theories. KN Jayatilleke , in his "Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge", uses the Pali Nikayas to glean the possible epistemological views of the historical Buddha and those of his contemporaries. The Rationalists Takki Vimamsi who only used reasoning or takka the skeptics and materialists.
The "Experientialists" who held that besides reasoning, a kind of supra-normal yogic insight was able to bring about unique forms of knowledge the Jains, the middle and late Upanishadic sages. The Buddha rejected the first view in several texts such as the Kalama sutta , arguing that a claim to scriptural authority sadda was not a source of knowledge, as was claimed by the later Hindu Mimamsa school. According to Jayatilleke, in the Pali Nikayas, this term refers "primarily to denote the reasoning that was employed to construct and defend metaphysical theories and perhaps meant the reasoning of sophists and dialecticians only in a secondary sense".
Some such as David Kalupahana , have seen him first and foremost as an empiricist because of his teaching that knowledge required verification through the six sense fields ayatanas. These inferences are made on the data of perception. What is considered to constitute knowledge are direct inferences made on the basis of such perceptions.
He also notes that Coherentism is also taken as a criterion for truth in the Nikayas, which contains many instances of the Buddha debating opponents by showing how they have contradicted themselves.
These are variously identified with the testimony of sense experience, introspective or intuitive experience, inferences drawn from these two types of experience, and some form of coherentism, which demands that truth claims remain consistent across the entire corpus of doctrine.
Thus, to the extent that Buddhists employ reason, they do so primarily in order further to advance the empirical investigation of phenomena. The early texts also mention that there was a set procedure patipada for these debates and that if someone does not abide by it they are unsuitable to be debated.
Other nigrahasthanas included arthantaram or "shifting the topic", and not giving a coherent reply. He held that after proper rational analysis, assertions could be classified in the following way:  Those which can be asserted or denied categorically ekamsika Those which cannot be asserted or denied categorically anekamsika , which the Buddha further divided into: Those which after analysis vibhajja- could be known to be true or false.
Those like the avyakata-theses, which could not be thus known. This view of analysis differed from that of the Jains , which held that all views were anekamsika and also were relative, that is, they were true or false depending on the standpoint one viewed it from anekantavada.
According to Jayatilleke, these "four forms of predication" can be rendered thus:  S is P, e. S is and is not P, e. S neither is nor is not P, e.
The Buddhists in the Nikayas use this logical structure to analyze the truth of statements and classify them. When all four were denied regarding a statement or question, it was held to be meaningless and thus set aside or rejected but not negated. Jayatilleke writes: when he is speaking about things or persons we should not presume that he is speaking about entities or substances; to this extent his meaning is to be inferred neyyattha-.
But when he is pointing out the misleading implications of speech or using language without these implications, his meaning is plain and direct and nothing is to be inferred nitattha-.
They spoke of two levels of truth , the conventional samutti , and the absolute paramattha. Its date is debated by scholars but it might date to the time of Ashoka C. Schayer and following him A.
Warder, have argued that there is an "anticipations of propositional logic" in the text.
Buddhist Logic, 2 Vols
Kagabar It is the last of a series of three works destined to elucidate what is perhaps the most powerful movement of ideas in the history of Asia, a movement which, originating in the 6th century BC in the valley of Hindustan, grad Volume 1 of 2. Street added it Apr 18, Highly technical, hence stccherbatsky three stars. Views Read Edit View history. He followed suit with his main work in English, Buddhist Logic 2 vols.
Buddhist Logic, Vol 1
BUDDHIST LOGIC STCHERBATSKY PDF