KONBAUNG DYNASTY PDF

In Alaungpaya , a village headman in Shwebo then called Moksobomyo; near Mandalay , organized an army and led a successful attack against the Mon rulers of the southern part of Myanmar. Alaungpaya led his armies southward, crushing all local resistance. Aware that his power rested on his ability to centralize his kingdom, Alaungpaya forced the rulers of the Shan States to accept his suzerainty. Advancing farther eastward, he attacked the Siamese kingdom of Ayutthaya now in Thailand but was forced to withdraw and was mortally wounded during his retreat.

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Subject to later wars and treaties with the British, the modern state of Burma can trace its current borders to these events. Of more earthly import was the historical threat of periodic raids and aiding of internal rebellions as well as invasion and imposition of overlordship from the neighbouring kingdoms of the Mon, Tai Shans and Manipuris. In , despite his victory over the Chinese armies, King Hsinbyushin sued for peace with China and concluded a treaty in order to maintain bilateral trade with the Middle Kingdom which was very important for the dynasty at that time.

The Qing Dynasty then opened up its markets and restored trading with Burma in after reconciliation. Thenceforth peaceful and friendly relations prevailed between China and Burma for a long time.

Facing a greater threat however from powerful Western nations, the Konbaung Dynasty tried to modernize the kingdom. Europeans began to set up trading posts in the Irrawaddy delta region during this period. Konbaung tried to maintain its independence by balancing between the French and the British. In the end it failed, the British severed diplomatic relations in , and the dynasty fought and lost three wars against the British Empire , culminating in total annexation of Burma by the British. Tharrawaddy made no attempt to improve relations with Britain.

The last king, Thibaw Min right , here with Queen Supayalat and her sister Princess Supayaji, was forcibly deposed in a war with the British colonialists in His son Pagan , who became king in , executed thousands — some sources say as many as 6, — of his wealthier and more influential subjects on trumped-up charges.

In , the Second Anglo-Burmese War broke out. Pagan was succeeded by his younger brother, the progressive Mindon. Mindon attempted to bring Burma into greater contact with the outside world, and hosted the Fifth Great Buddhist Synod in at Mandalay , gaining the respect of the British and the admiration of his own people.

This massacre was conducted by the queen. Although the dynasty had conquered vast tracts of territory, its direct power was limited to its capital and the fertile plains of the Irrawaddy valley. The Konbaung rulers enacted harsh levies and had a difficult time fighting internal rebellions. At various times, the Shan states paid tribute to the Konbaung Dynasty, but unlike the Mon lands, were never directly controlled by the Burmese.

Society Burmese court officials in During Konbaung rule, society was centred around the Konbaung king. The rulers of the Konbaung Dynasty took several wives and they were ranked, with half-sisters of the king holding the most powerful positions. The Konbaung kings fathered numerous children, creating a huge extended royal family which formed the power base of the dynasty and competed over influence at the royal court.

It also posed problems of succession at the same time often resulting in royal massacres carried out in such a way that royal blood must not be shed. Burmese society was highly stratified during Konbaung rule. Under the royal family, the nobility administered the government, led the armies, and governed large population centres.

The Konbaung Dynasty kept a detailed lineage of Burmese nobility written on palm leaf manuscripts , peisa, that were later destroyed by British soldiers. There was also distinction between taxpayers and non-taxpayers. Military captives Konbaung era Myinkhin Thabin Captives from various military campaigns in their hundreds and thousands were brought back to the kingdom and resettled as hereditary servants to royalty and nobility or dedicated to pagodas and temples; these captives added new knowledge and skills to Burmese society and enriched Burmese culture.

They were encouraged to marry into the host community thus enriching the gene pool as well. Even captured French soldiers, led by Chevalier Milard , were forced into the Burmese army.

They became an elite corps, which was to play a role in the Burmese battles against the Siamese attacks and capture of Ayutthaya from to and the Manchus battles against the Chinese armies of the Qian Long emperor from to A small community of foreign scholars, missionaries and merchants also lived in Konbaung society. Reforms Realizing the need to modernize, the Konbaung rulers tried to enact various reforms with limited success.

King Mindon with his able brother Crown Prince Kanaung established state-owned factories to produce modern weaponry and goods ; in the end, these factories proved more costly than effective in staving off foreign invasion and conquest.

Mindon also tried to reduce the tax burden by lowering the heavy income tax and created a property tax , as well as duties on foreign exports.

Ironically, these policies had the reverse effect of increasing the tax burden, as the local elites used the opportunity to enact new taxes without lowering the old ones; they were able to do so as control from the centre was weak. In addition, the duties on foreign exports stifled the burgeoning trade and commerce.

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Konbaung Dynasty of Myanmar In midth century, a new Burmese kingdom was the kingdom of Ava which appeared in Alaungpaya and formed the Konbaung Dynasty called the third Burmese Empire in at the Mandalay. It gradually expanded control over many areas now is Myanmar , including the conquest of the states in hilly areas of the Shan. Myanmar became a significant powerful country in the region, competed territory and population with the Ayuthaya of Thai kingdom. The competition between the Burmese and Thai became bitter and fierce. This capital city has been looted and destroyed, ten thousands of Thais arrested and brought into Myanmar to be slavery; Ayuthaya kingdom collapsed. Qing and Konbaung teritory before Sino Burmese War. Qing Dynasty China was anxiety about the growth of Myanmar invaded the country four times in the period from to without any success.

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Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Burmese script. He married 18 times. In the governor of Pegu , Maung Ok, charged the captains of two British merchant ships with murder, embezzlement, and evasion of custom duties. He fined them rupees, and required their debts be paid before being authorized to return to Kolkata. Pagan complied by replacing Maung Ok.

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Konbaung dynasty

Subject to later wars and treaties with the British, the modern state of Burma can trace its current borders to these events. Of more earthly import was the historical threat of periodic raids and aiding of internal rebellions as well as invasion and imposition of overlordship from the neighbouring kingdoms of the Mon, Tai Shans and Manipuris. In , despite his victory over the Chinese armies, King Hsinbyushin sued for peace with China and concluded a treaty in order to maintain bilateral trade with the Middle Kingdom which was very important for the dynasty at that time. The Qing Dynasty then opened up its markets and restored trading with Burma in after reconciliation. Thenceforth peaceful and friendly relations prevailed between China and Burma for a long time. Facing a greater threat however from powerful Western nations, the Konbaung Dynasty tried to modernize the kingdom. Europeans began to set up trading posts in the Irrawaddy delta region during this period.

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Konbaung Dynasty of Myanmar

Establishment[ edit ] The dynasty was heroically founded by a village chief, who later became known as Alaungpaya , in to challenge the Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom which had just toppled the Taungoo dynasty. Reforms[ edit ] Realising the need to modernise, the Konbaung rulers tried to enact various reforms with limited success. King Mindon with his able brother Crown Prince Kanaung established state-owned factories to produce modern weaponry and goods ; in the end, these factories proved more costly than effective in staving off foreign invasion and conquest. Mindon also tried to reduce the tax burden by lowering the heavy income tax and created a property tax , as well as duties on foreign exports. These policies had the reverse effect of increasing the tax burden, as the local elites used the opportunity to enact new taxes without lowering the old ones; they were able to do so as control from the centre was weak. In addition, the duties on foreign exports stifled the burgeoning trade and commerce.

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