JANAPADA KATHALU PDF

Etymology[ edit ] The Sanskrit term janapada is a tatpurusha compound term, composed of two words: janas and pada. Jana means "people" or "subject" cf. Latin cognate genus, English cognate kin. The word pada means "foot" cf. Latin cognate pedis ; [1] [2] from its earliest attestation, the word has had a double meaning of "realm, territory" and "subject population" cf. Hittite pedan, "place".

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Etymology Edit The Sanskrit term janapada is a tatpurusha compound term, composed of two words: janas and pada. Jana means "people" or "subject" cf. Latin cognate genus, English cognate kin. The word pada means "foot" cf. Latin cognate pedis ; [1] [2] from its earliest attestation, the word has had a double meaning of "realm, territory" and "subject population" cf.

Hittite pedan, "place". For the sense of "population of the land", padasya janas, the inverted padajana would be expected. A primary meaning of "place of the people", janasya padam, would not explain why the compound is of masculine gender.

An original dvandva "land and people" is conceivable, but a dual inflection would be expected. The earliest mention of the term "janapada" occurs in the Aitareya 8. The samiti was a common assembly of the jana members, and had the power to elect or dethrone the king. The sabha was a smaller assembly of wise elders, who advised the king.

Various kulas clans developed within the jana, each with its own chief. Gradually, the necessities of defence and warfare prompted the janas to form military groupings headed by janapadins Kshatriya warriors. This model ultimately evolved into the establishment of political units known as the janapadas. According to the political scientist Sudama Misra, the name of the Panchala janapada suggests that it was a fusion of five pancha janas.

Misra theorizes that these smaller janas were conquered by and assimilated into the larger janas. Their disestablishment can be attributed to the rise of imperial powers such as Magadha within India, as well as foreign invasions such as those by the Persians and the Greeks in the north-western South Asia.

The head of a kingdom was called a rajan or king. A chief purohita or priest and a senani or commander of the army who would assist the king. There were also two other political bodies: the sabha , thought to be a council of elders and the samiti , a general assembly of the entire people. Sometimes, large forests, which were larger than the kingdoms themselves, formed their boundaries as was the case of Naimisha Forest , the NaimishaAranyam between Panchala and Kosala kingdoms.

The remains of this city has been discovered in Bareilly. Some kingdoms possessed a main city that served as its capital. Ahichatra was the capital of Northern Panchala whereas Kampilya was the capital of Southern Panchala.

Kosala Kingdom had its capital at Ayodhya. Apart from the main city or capital, where the palace of the ruling king was situated, there were small towns and villages spread throughout the kingdom, from which tax was collected by officers appointed by the king.

What the king offered in return was protection from attack by other kings and robber tribes, as well as from invading foreign nomadic tribes.

The king also enforced law and order in his kingdom by punishing the guilty.

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