Hasht Behesht , a Safavid -era pavilion in Isfahan , Iran. The term was used in Persian literature as a metaphorical image, and was later notably used in a poem by Mughal poet Amir Khusrow , who gave the most comprehensible literary reconstruction of the model in his adaptation of an Iranian epic about Sasanian ruler Bahram V , as well as in other works by Ottoman poets Sehi Bey and Idris Bitlisi. It is closely related to Islamic eschatology , in which heaven is described as having eight gates and eight spaces, and is also observed in Christian symbolism in the concept of salvation. Ninefold schemes find particular resonance in the Indian mandalas , the cosmic maps of Hinduism and Buddhism. Mughal India[ edit ] In the architecture of the Persianate Mughal Empire , hasht-behesht was the favorite plan for gardens and pavilions, as well as for mausolea seen as a funerary form of pavilion. These were planned as square or rectangular buildings divided into nine sections, with a central domed chamber surrounded by eight elements.
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In this example, the corner rooms are octagonal, forming massive pillars that define four large openings leading to large porches with wooden ceilings on the east, north and west facades. The south facade is punctured by a vaulted iwan. The vault of the central space is detailed with polychrome muqarnas and is capped with a lantern cupola. The openness of the pavilion to the exterior, with large open archways and the top-lit domed space, is enhanced with a fountain positioned under the dome.
Nineteenth century engravings reveal that the interior was once covered in tiles and wall paintings that have since been removed. Some of the original mirror mosaic remains on the vault. The project, completed in , received an Aga Khan Award for Architecture in Sources: Babaie, Sussan. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, Blair, Sheila S. The Art and Architecture of Islam. New Haven: Yale University Press, Ferrante, M. Zander, Rome: IsMEO, Pope, Arthur Upham. New York: George Braziller, Pope, Arthur Upham, ed.
Tehran: Soroush Press, Additional information:.
Hasht Bishist (Urdu) Malfuzat of eight Chishti shaykhs
This cosmological concept is closely connected to Islamic eschatology, in which paradise is conceived as having eight gates and eight spaces, each one decorated with a special precious stone or material. Angelo M. Piemontese , introd. XVIII, fol. As an architectural form, scholars use this term to refer to a particular kind of building, several of which date from the 15th century. The earliest examples, generally built in gardens, are identified in the Timurid period. Beveridge, p.
Daleel-ul-Arifeen (Urdu) Malfuzat Khwaja Ajmeri