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Variations 11—15 Problems playing these files? See media help. In he wrote two of his four symphonies, No. He devoted to composing chamber music, including the Piano Quintet in E-flat , Op.
In he wrote Paradise and the Peri , his first attempt at concerted vocal music, an oratorio style work based on Lalla-Rookh by Thomas Moore. After this, his compositions were not confined to any one form during any particular period. He spent the first half of with Clara on tour in Russia, and his depression grew worse as he felt inferior to Clara as a musician.
On returning to Germany, he abandoned his editorial work and left Leipzig for Dresden , where he suffered from persistent " nervous prostration ". As soon as he began to work, he was seized with fits of shivering and an apprehension of death, experiencing an abhorrence of high places, all metal instruments even keys , and drugs.
Also published in was his Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. It is one of the most popular and oft-recorded of all piano concertos; according to Hutcheson "Schumann achieved a masterly work and we inherited the finest piano concerto since Mozart and Beethoven".
In the winter, the Schumanns revisited Vienna, traveling to Prague and Berlin in the spring of and in the summer to Zwickau, where he was received with enthusiasm.
This pleased him, since until that time he was famous in only Dresden and Leipzig. His only opera, Genoveva , Op. The text is often considered to lack dramatic qualities; the work has not remained in the repertoire. As early as the possibilities of German opera had been keenly realized by Schumann, who wrote, "Do you know my prayer as an artist, night and morning?
And in his notebook of suggestions for the text of operas are found amongst others: Nibelungen , Lohengrin and Till Eulenspiegel. The insurrection of Dresden caused Schumann to move to Kreischa , a little village a few miles outside the city. Liszt gave him assistance and encouragement. The rest of the work was written later in , and the overture which Schumann described as "one of the sturdiest of [his] creations" in After [ edit ] Robert Schumann in an daguerreotype From to , Schumann composed in a wide variety of genres.
Critics have disputed the quality of his work at this time; a widely held view has been that his music showed signs of mental breakdown and creative decay. More recently, critics have suggested that the changes in style may be explained by "lucid experimentation". According to Harold C. Schonberg , in his The Great Conductors: "The great composer was impossible on the platform By the end of that year he completed his Symphony No. In he revised what would be published as his fourth symphony.
From to he visited Switzerland, Belgium and Leipzig. On 30 September , the year-old composer Johannes Brahms arrived unannounced at the door of the Schumanns carrying a letter of introduction from violinist Joseph Joachim. Schumann was not at home, and would not meet Brahms until the next day. Brahms amazed Clara and Robert with his music, stayed with them for several weeks, and became a close family friend. He suffered a renewal of the symptoms that had threatened him earlier. Besides the single note sounding in his ear possibly evidence of tinnitus ,  he imagined that voices sounded in his ear and he heard angelic music.
In the days leading up to his suicide attempt, Schumann wrote five variations on this theme for the piano, his last completed work, today known as the Geistervariationen Ghost Variations. He warned Clara that he feared he might do her harm.
On 27 February, he attempted suicide by throwing himself from a bridge into the Rhine River his elder sister Emilie had committed suicide in , possibly by drowning herself. Rescued by boatmen and taken home, he asked to be taken to an asylum for the insane. He entered Dr. During his confinement, he was not allowed to see Clara, although Brahms was free to visit him. Clara finally visited him two days before his death. He appeared to recognize her, but was able to speak only a few words.
Another possibility is that his neurological problems were the result of an intracranial mass. It was a form of tinnitus, or perhaps an auditory hallucination related to his major depressive episode.
At times, he had musical hallucinations that were longer than just the single A, but his diaries include comments about hearing that annoying single note. From mid-career on, she mainly performed music by leading composers. A hired cook and housekeeper tended to the children while she traveled. In , she first visited England. She returned to London in and made regular appearances there in later years, often performing chamber music with the violinist Joseph Joachim and others.
Schumann had considerable influence in the nineteenth century and beyond, despite his adoption of more conservative modes of composition after his marriage. He left an array of acclaimed music in virtually all the forms then known.
Composer Sir Edward Elgar called Schumann "my ideal. The stamps were soon replaced by a pair featuring music written by Schumann.
Theme in E-flat major (Schumann, Robert)
Von den “Geistervariationen” in den Wahnsinn | R. Schumann (1854)