FIVE DIALOGUES EUTHYPHRO APOLOGY CRITO MENO PHAEDO PDF

Grote in admitting as genuine all the writings commonly attributed to Plato in antiquity, any more than with Schaarschmidt and some other German critics who reject nearly half of them. The German critics, to whom I refer, proceed chiefly on grounds of internal evidence; they appear to me to lay too much stress on the variety of doctrine and style, which must be equally acknowledged as a fact, even in the Dialogues regarded by Schaarschmidt as genuine, e. He who admits works so different in style and matter to have been the composition of the same author, need have no difficulty in admitting the Sophist or the Politicus. The negative argument adduced by the same school of critics, which is based on the silence of Aristotle, is not worthy of much consideration.

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Shelves: non-fiction , philosophy All of the Platonic dialogues in this book come together to form something of a narrative of the trial and last days of the famous philosopher Socrates. Covering topics that range from piety, truth, virtue and even the nature of the soul and the afterlife this is a good collection to get started in an investigation of the figure of Socrates and his depiction by his most famous pupil Plato. Euthyphro: On his way to the Athenian law courts to face charges of impiety and the corruption of the youth All of the Platonic dialogues in this book come together to form something of a narrative of the trial and last days of the famous philosopher Socrates.

Euthyphro is himself at the courts to charge his own father in the case of the murder of one of his slaves a legal action that many in the Athens of the time would have considered itself an impious act , though Euthyphro himself is convinced that he has a more accurate view of the will of the gods than anyone who can stand against him.

Socrates thus hopes that this self-styled prophet and expert on piety can teach it to Socrates himself and ultimately aid him in his legal defense. At first Euthyphro is only too eager to accept the challenge until the penetrating questions of Socrates start to show this would-be ally that his convictions are not based on any rational foundation, but are rather the results of his own baseless assumptions and personal feelings.

He is a penetrating questioner, but his lack of tact and disregard for all but the truth show how it was all too likely that even many of those who might admire and support Socrates could in the end be driven away by his remorseless quest for answers.

Apology: In which Socrates has his day in court and responds to the allegations of impiety and corruption of the young levelled at him by the Athenian citizens who are fed up with his ability to constantly show up the flimsy nature of their beliefs.

There is much of interest in this dialogue or really monologue for the most part , but it is significant that Socrates avers that the basis for his whole way of life is piety and attributes as the source of his questioning no lesser authority than Apollo himself through the voice of the Delphic oracle.

According to Socrates a friend discovered from the oracle that no man was wiser than Socrates himself. Apparently perturbed by this declaration Socrates decided to put the oracle to the test and so began by questioning all of those thought to be wisest in the city, the result being that he soon discovered that all those most likely to put themselves forward as wise were in fact the least wise and often the ones whose opinions held the least water when examined closely.

Add to this the fact that he holds the position of principal nuisance and embarrassment to the powerful of Athens and he acknowledges that his place on the chopping block is nearly assured. He takes his eventual sentence of death philosophically heh, see what I did there? Engaging his friend in his typical question and answer debate format Socrates quickly dismisses any concern as to the stain on their honour since the opinions of the majority have little or nothing to do with the truth and should therefore not be considered when nothing less than that is at stake.

Regardless of the consequences one must follow where the path of virtue leads even unto death. The truth, for Socrates, is an absolute value, not a relative one. The obvious personal interest of his accusers in using the law to gain their own ends, and even the simple fact that the human laws of any state can easily be used to attain nearly any goal by one skilled enough in their manipulation, left me feeling that in this regard Socrates was either being willfully simple, or making an ironic comment on law itself.

Also, given that the ways of states can differ significantly, and Socrates avowed aim is to find the objective Truth with a capital T , to defer to the man-made and situational laws of one state as in some way embodying a facet of this greater Truth left a bad taste in my mouth.

Is this not also a betrayal of the truth, arguably an even larger one than that proposed by his friends? Socrates goes some way to answering this argument by claiming that the laws themselves were just, they were merely misused by men, but I still remain largely unconvinced.

Crito gives up on any further attempts to convince his friend to escape and Socrates places his fate in the hands of the god.

Meno: Socrates searches out the answer to the question of how virtue is attained is it learned, the result of practice, or an in-born quality and skirts around the wider question of what in fact virtue even is. In the case of the latter investigation Socrates first asserts that the soul is immortal and as such participates in the eternal nature of the cosmos and has therefore come to know all things, which are then able to be recollected by us in our earthly lives.

He begins by noting that life is like a prison, a difficult trial which men must overcome by adopting the philosophical life whose end is apparently ultimately to prepare one for death. It would thus appear that the philosopher is, ultimately, a spiritual man. It seemed to me that Socrates or Plato laid it on a little thick here in denying the utility of sense perceptions as part of rational investigation: Then he will do this most perfectly who approaches the object with thought alone, without associating any sight with his thought, or dragging in any sense perception with his reasoning, but who, using pure thought alone, tries to track down each reality pure and by itself, freeing himself as far as possible from eyes and ears and, in a word, from the whole body Do not the things that we perceive about objects inform our very understanding of these Platonic Ideals in which they supposedly participate?

Could a man born blind and deaf be a good philosopher since he would not be hampered by deceptive sense perceptions? Socrates seems to adopt an almost dualistic stance equating the body, and all of its functions, with a flawed and even evil nature, while the soul is pure unless dragged down by the desires of the body.

I think it is in the presentation of the doctrine of the Platonic Ideals that I had the most difficulty in this dialogue. Socrates argues that these Ideals are eternal and existed before all other things in the world that merely participate in their nature.

In the end Socrates stoically socratically?

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Five Dialogues: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Meno, Phaedo

Shelves: non-fiction , philosophy All of the Platonic dialogues in this book come together to form something of a narrative of the trial and last days of the famous philosopher Socrates. Covering topics that range from piety, truth, virtue and even the nature of the soul and the afterlife this is a good collection to get started in an investigation of the figure of Socrates and his depiction by his most famous pupil Plato. Euthyphro: On his way to the Athenian law courts to face charges of impiety and the corruption of the youth All of the Platonic dialogues in this book come together to form something of a narrative of the trial and last days of the famous philosopher Socrates. Euthyphro is himself at the courts to charge his own father in the case of the murder of one of his slaves a legal action that many in the Athens of the time would have considered itself an impious act , though Euthyphro himself is convinced that he has a more accurate view of the will of the gods than anyone who can stand against him. Socrates thus hopes that this self-styled prophet and expert on piety can teach it to Socrates himself and ultimately aid him in his legal defense. At first Euthyphro is only too eager to accept the challenge until the penetrating questions of Socrates start to show this would-be ally that his convictions are not based on any rational foundation, but are rather the results of his own baseless assumptions and personal feelings.

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Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, and Phaedo

For this new edition I have added a number of new footnotes explaining various places and events in Athens, features of Greek mythology, and the like, to which Socrates and his interlocutors make reference. At a number of places I have introduced further revisions in the translations. John M. For most of this time he was a well-known character, expounding his philosophy of life in the streets of Athens to anyone who cared to listen. There is no reason to suppose that these questions were restricted to the life of the individual. To satisfy it, there arose a number of traveling teachers who were called the Sophists.

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Five dialogues Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Meno, Phaedo

The influence of these men on the culture of the Western world can scarcely be overestimated. Each of them made significant contributions to philosophy, and it would be difficult to determine to which one of them we are most indebted. All three were original thinkers and great teachers. In point of time, Socrates was the one who appeared first. Plato became the most distinguished of his pupils, and Aristotle in turn received instruction from Plato. Both Plato and Aristotle were prolific writers, and what we know about them has been derived chiefly from their published works.

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Plato: Five Dialogues: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Meno, Phaedo (Hackett Classics)

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