Copyright This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Abstract The cucumber moth, Diaphania indica Saunders Lepidoptera: Pyralidae , is a tropical and sub-tropical cucurbits pest and a key greenhouse pest in the Jiroft region of Iran. In this study, the effect of different temperatures on the development of this pest was investigated on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. The results indicated that the development period from egg to adult death at the decreased with increasing temperature. Keywords: development period, greenhouse pest Introduction The cucumber moth, Diaphania indica Saunders Lepidoptera: Pyralidae , is a polyphagous pest and is particularly serious on cucurbits.
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Recorded distribution Diaphania hylinata occurs from Canada to Argentina. Diaphania indica occurs in Florida, tropical America, and the Old World tropics.
Identification authority Summary Identification of larvae in the D. None of these characters are very distinctive and numerous sibling species of Diaphania exist with unknown larvae. These uncertainties all suggest a need for caution; see the Detailed Information tab. At least genus identification is usually possible. Distribution: Medium.
Diaphania indica is present in Florida but is not widespread in the rest of the United States. Diaphania hyalinata is common wherever its hosts are grown.
When one species is present in the U. Potential Impact: High. Both species are pests. This ranking characterizes the D. These two species are treated together because the larvae are difficult to separate and there is evidence that both are intercepted at United States ports. There are other species of Diaphania in Latin America that are similar to both D.
The larva of D. Color photographs were published by King and Saunders , Passoa , Schmutterer et al. The life cycle was illustrated by Singh Typically, larvae of the D.
The L1 seta on A8, at least in D. Larvae of the D. Unlike D. There are also coloration differences between the two taxa Smith , Passoa , Weisman , Whittle and Ferguson , Neunzig , Solis Live larvae of D. Another difference is that early instars of D. All instars of larvae in the D. Of course the white subdorsal lines usually fade in preserved specimens.
Sometimes the mandibles of D. According to Capps , some N. These could potentially be confused with larvae of the D. Among many differences, the mandible of the D. So far no characters have been found to separate D. The drawing in Singh seems to fit this diagnosis but more material is needed to evaluate the variability of this character. The larval antenna of D. Mathur and Singh used the height of the adfrontal area and position of AF1 to separate D.
This, and the pattern of pigmentation on the prothoracic and anal shields they illustrated Mathur and Singh fig.
Nevertheless, accurate morphological identifications are easily made by rearing because the genitalia of both sexes and pupal morphology are very different in D. Passoa figs. The pilifers of D. The opposite is true for D. This difference is often visible on cast skins. Whittle and Ferguson added that maxillae extend to A8 or A9 in D.
The pupal abdominal dorsum of D. Identification authority Detailed Identification of larvae in the D. None of these characters are very distinctive. Many species of crambids lack a genal spot. The presence of an outer tooth on the mandible is unusual but a similar outer tooth is also found on Maruca vitrata, for example.
The bisetose SV group on A1 is helpful, but again not unique. A lack of characters for recognizing the D. Larvae of both the D. These uncertainties all suggest a need for caution. Unless the specimen is clearly in the in the D. Origin and host are both helpful for identification of the D. Diaphania hylinata occurs from Canada to Argentina Solis Therefore, Old World interceptions of the D.
The hosts of D. Diaphania indica has a wider host range that includes Cucurbitaceae, legumes, cotton Clavijo and eggplant CEIR Thus, interceptions of the D.
There is a need to clarify the relative abundance of the D. One D. Solis in Several larvae were collected at Homestead, Florida, in by S. Passoa on Momordica. These were reared to the pupal stage and identified as D. Habeck collection for example A Because of these records, it is tempting to say that D. A rearing program was suggested for D. It is only necessary to rear larvae to the pupal stage.
Of course, modern methods like DNA barcoding would allow for more rapid identification. Lucia, St. The normal hosts of D.
Cucumber Moth | Diaphania indica
Recorded distribution Diaphania hylinata occurs from Canada to Argentina. Diaphania indica occurs in Florida, tropical America, and the Old World tropics. Identification authority Summary Identification of larvae in the D. None of these characters are very distinctive and numerous sibling species of Diaphania exist with unknown larvae. These uncertainties all suggest a need for caution; see the Detailed Information tab. At least genus identification is usually possible. Distribution: Medium.
Diaphania indica, Cucumber Moth.
Adults have translucent whitish wings with broad dark brown borders. The body is whitish below, and brown on top of head and thorax as well as the end of the abdomen. There is a tuft of light brown "hairs" on the tip of the abdomen, vestigial in the male but well developed in the female. It is formed by long scales which are carried in a pocket on each side of the 7th abdominal segment, from where they can be everted to form the tufts. Unfertilized females are often seen sitting around with the tuft fully spread, forming two flower-like clumps of scales, which move slowly to spread their pheromones.