CROFER 22 APU PDF

Kakinos Together with the other alloying elements titanium and manganese, the lanthan ensures that a protective coating of chromium manganese oxide forms on the surface of the interconnector plates as soon as the fuel cell becomes active. Central Press Office for Journalists. As well as making the electrical connection they also supply the cells with fuel gas and air via gas passages. During subsequent hot rolling it is important that the temperature window is observed precisely.

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Kakinos Together with the other alloying elements titanium and manganese, the lanthan ensures that a protective coating of chromium manganese oxide forms on the surface of the interconnector plates as soon as the fuel cell becomes active.

Central Press Office for Journalists. As well as making the electrical connection they also supply the cells with fuel gas and air via gas passages. During subsequent hot rolling it is important that the temperature window is observed precisely. Chromium also limits the thermal expansion of 2 alloy, giving it a similar coefficient of expansion to the surrounding ceramic xpu. The SOFC is a fuel cell variant which works at temperatures up to degrees.

Home Cgofer Press releases. The aim is to use an SOFC plant as a supplement for battery and dynamo. The starting materials for energy conversion can be hydrogen, natural gas or reformed gasoline. Crofer 22 APU: new material for fuel cells — thyssenkrupp AG Crofer 22 APU, an iron-chromium alloy, for the first time fulfils the previously conflicting requirements of good high-temperature stability, high electrical conductivity and low coefficient of expansion.

Critical to this is croter 0. In the melting furnace, where several tons of the alloy are produced in one charge, minimum amounts of alloying elements have to be added in precise quantities. This so-called chromium-manganese spinel prevents chromium evaporation and at the same time assures the necessary electrical conductivity of the interconnector plates.

Normally, metallic materials achieve their long-term stability at such temperatures by means of high chromium content. Each cell contains an anode, cathode and ceramic zirconium dioxide as the electrolyte to start the power generation process. The main reason is the high operating temperature of the fuel cells.

Products and solutions, While the ceramic materials used previously for the interconnector plates do not have the problem of chromium evaporation, they are unsuitable for economic volume production due to the complex production requirements involved for example in milling the passages for the gas supply.

The manufacture of Crofer 22 APU requires extreme precision at every stage of the production process. The most important components of the SOFC stack are the interconnector plates between the cells. It can be formed without problems, given ribs or other surface structures and machined using conventional production methods and equipment. However, at temperatures of degrees, the chromium is released and destroys the electrolyte.

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Crofer 22 APU is characterized by:? UNS applied for W. Mechanical properties Product 0. Fabrication and heat treament Crofer 22 APU can readily be hot and cold worked and machined. Heating Workpieces must be clean and free from all kinds of contaminants before and during any heat treatment. Crofer 22 APU may become embrittled if heated in the presence of contaminants such as sulfur, phosphorus, lead and other low-melting-point metals.

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CROFER 22 APU PDF

Neshicage The manufacture of Apy 22 APU requires extreme precision at every stage of the production process. In terms of fabrication, however, Crofer 22 APU is just as easy to handle as a standard stainless steel. Central Press Office for Journalists. Company Products Investors Newsroom. The starting materials for energy conversion can be hydrogen, natural gas or reformed gasoline. Crofer 22 APU: new material for fuel cells — thyssenkrupp AG In the melting furnace, where several tons of the alloy are produced in one charge, minimum amounts of alloying elements have to be added in precise quantities.

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Creep properties of the given steels are evaluated by constant-load tests at oC to oC. Several creep lifetime models are applied to correlate the creep rupture time with applied stress or minimum creep rate. Comprehensive comparisons between Crofer 22 APU and Crofer 22 H steels are made on the tensile strength and creep resistance so as to characterize the influence of additions of refractory elements Nb and W. Out-of-phase TMF tests as well as TMF-creep interaction tests under various combinations of cyclic mechanical and thermal loadings are conducted at a temperature range of 25oCoC for Crofer 22 H to study its long-term durability for applications in pSOFCs. Experimental results show the variation of yield strength with temperature in Crofer 22 APU can be described by a sigmoidal curve for different deformation mechanisms. According to the creep stress exponent, activation energy, and microstructural observations, a diffusion-controlled dislocation creep mechanism is involved in the creep behavior of Crofer 22 APU steels at oCoC, while a power-law dislocation creep mechanism interacting with an in-situ precipitation strengthening mechanism is involved in the creep behavior of Crofer 22 H steels at oCoC. A significant coarsening of the Laves phase is responsible for a reduced improvement of creep resistance in Crofer 22 H at the low-stress, long-term region of oC.

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