BALLASTLESS TRACK PDF

Ballastless tracks therefore offer a high consistency in track geometry , the adjusting of, not possible after the concreting of the superstructure. Therefore, ballastless tracks must be concreted within a tolerance of 0. Measurements conducted in Switzerland in and showed a standard deviation of the gauge of less than 1. This in turn reduces the need for maintenance; the usual preventive maintenance is limited to rail grinding, since tamping is not necessary due to the absence of ballast.

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Ballastless tracks therefore offer a high consistency in track geometry , the adjusting of, not possible after the concreting of the superstructure. Therefore, ballastless tracks must be concreted within a tolerance of 0.

Measurements conducted in Switzerland in and showed a standard deviation of the gauge of less than 1. This in turn reduces the need for maintenance; the usual preventive maintenance is limited to rail grinding, since tamping is not necessary due to the absence of ballast.

Due to its good experiences with the system, the Swiss Federal Railways are looking to install ballastless track wherever there is a rigid substructure—in tunnels as well as on viaducts. Further advantages of ballastless tracks include better and controlled drainage, the elimination of flying-ballast damage on rolling stock and civil engineering structures, a shallower superstructure, the possibility run-over sections such as crossings over which pneumatic vehicles can be driven.

When used in stations, ballastless tracks are easier to clean; the primary disadvantage of a ballastless track is its higher cost of initial construction. While numbers vary depending on construction type and track infrastructure, the Deutsche Bahn estimated in that construction costs of ballastless tracks are 40 percent higher than those of traditional superstructure.

However, the life-cycle cost of ballastless tracks are lower than those of ballasted tracks due to lower maintenance. Further disadvantages of ballastless tracks are the impossibility of adjusting or correcting track geometry once concrete has been set, the necessity of a stable infrastructure, higher noise emissions, longer repair times when the concrete slab is damaged.

Early slab track projects a range of sub-bases and fastening technologies. All of its components can be exchanged individually. The first serial installation took place in Schleswig-Holstein and Heidelberg in It was first tested in , became the standard system in Austria in , has been used for over kilometres of track worldwide, including the German Verkehrsprojekt Deutsche Einheit Nr.

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Now, he has embraced another form of extremism by meshing his misogyny with anti-Semitism. His inclusion on the list was reported by several publications, some of which mocked the inclusion for being extreme. In response to criticism, the SPLC clarified that it was not labeling the sites as members of a hate movement, but wished to draw attention to "specific examples of misogyny and the threat, overt or implicit, of violence".

In , The Washington Post columnist Caitlin Dewey stated that Valizadeh was one of a number of internet writers considered misogynist, writing: "Valizadeh owns the website ReturnofKings. Lozada was born on August in Iloilo City , he started acting at the age of 11 on the movie Mga Bituin ng Kinabukasan with the younger Susan Roces.

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This was called the Indian Fleet. According to Admiral Sourendra Nath Kohli , the Commander-in-Chief Western Naval Command, "The Western Fleet was given a broad directive to seek and destroy enemy warships, protect our merchant shipping, deny sealanes to enemy shipping and render ineffective the maritime line of communication between West Pakistan and East Pakistan to prevent any reinforcements from reaching the beleaguered Pakistani forces at that end.

The attack irreparably damaged another destroyer and oil storage tanks at the Karachi port. The entire Western Fleet had sailed from Mumbai to the North Arabian Sea to increase surveillance and adopt a deterrent posture. Then-Prime Minister of Pakistan , Nawaz Sharif disclosed that Pakistan was left with just six days of fuel to sustain itself if a full-scale war had broken out. Her name was chosen from the first syllables of the names of her father, her elder brother Bozkurt is five years her senior, while her elder sister Dilek is three years older than her.

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Eski Kocam, but it was taken off broadcast after its first episode. In April , she carried the Summer Olympics torch in Istanbul. Birsel, who has said that she is not suitable for motherhood, has no children. Velev ki Ciddiyim! He succeeded his father in the baronetcy in In about he moved from his ancestral seat of Great House, having built for himself Escot House , a grand mansion in the parish of Talaton in Devon, to the design of Robert Hooke , his father had purchased the manor of Mohuns Ottery in the parish of Luppit and had started to build a new residence there, which the 3rd Baronet discontinued, preferring the situation of Escot.

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Yonge on 18 July and was buried at Colyton, he had a son and three daughters by his second wife.

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Comparison of Ballasted Track and Non-Ballasted Track

This applies not only to parameters such as axle load and speed, but also less obvious factors such as train length and frequency. In addition to the classical design of track grid floating in ballast, other non-conventional designs have been developed with varying degrees of success. The railway permanent way has an average useful life of between 30 and 60 years. Because of the large financial investments that are necessary, innovations in the field of railway infrastructure only gain acceptance slowly. Therefore, it would be wrong to describe the sector as slow at implementing innovations. The numerous and different certification regulations, some of which are due to national specifications, make it difficult to introduce new products.

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Ballastless track

The scope for development of the system is very large due to future development planned for Mumbai Metro, Bangalore Metro and introduction of high speed Routes. Technological innovation is therefore a must to accomplish the task of above mentioned Metro Systems. Thereafter some more sections were opened at different times and finally the entire stretch from Dum Dum to Tollygunj became operational from September 27, It took about eleven years to start first and last section of Kolkata Metro. Almost entire section of Metro from Dum Dum to Tollygunj is underground. Ballast-less track has been provided in this entire section.

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BALLASTLESS TRACKS

Ballastless tracks therefore offer a high consistency in track geometry , the adjusting of which is not possible after the concreting of the superstructure. Therefore, ballastless tracks must be concreted within a tolerance of 0. The usual preventive maintenance is limited to rail grinding, since tamping is not necessary due to the absence of ballast. Curative maintenance beyond rail replacement is required only after several decades. When used in stations, ballastless tracks are easier to clean. While numbers vary depending on construction type and track infrastructure ballastless tracks are generally more suitable to infrastructures that are also made of concrete, as is the case in tunnels or on viaducts , the Deutsche Bahn estimated in that construction costs of ballastless tracks are 40 percent higher than those of traditional superstructure. Further disadvantages of ballastless tracks are the impossibility of adjusting or correcting track geometry once concrete has been set, the necessity of a stable infrastructure since no adjustments can be made to the superstructure , higher noise emissions, and longer repair times when the concrete slab is damaged e.

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Ballastless track construction system

Locations Ballastless track systems: top performance on a firm foundation Rail traffic is reaching out toward new horizons on ballastless track systems. The arguments are indeed convincing: long life cycles, top speed, ride comfort, and great load-carrying capability. In many cases, a maintenance-free track system is indeed the more cost-effective solution over the long run. For the first time, Deutsche Bahn AG applied this new technology on a full section of track: with extremely high levels of technical quality, and with great overall success. The success of ballastless-track technology is primarily based on the following advantages: Stability, precision, and ride comfort Long life cycles and practically no maintenance Flexibility and end-to-end effectiveness in application Basis for optimal routing of rail line Overview of ballastless track systems Ballastless tracks can be built on either asphalt or concrete supporting layers.

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