Plants are not very hardy in Britain, they can be grown outdoors in the summer but require protection in the winter. The stems of the plant are covered in sharp spines. Like the closely related gorse Ulex europaea the flowers have a pineapple scent. A slightly strange report because the gorse flowers have a strong coconut fragrance[K].
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There are no records of hybridization of A. Physiology and Phenology Singh and Yadava have reported phenological stages of A. At the time of peak growth, plant biomass was uniformly distributed in the middle and upper portions of the plant and A.
Underground parts form a system of horizontal and vertical roots at a depth of m or greater; new shoots regenerating during winter from the dormant buds on the rhizomes Ambasht, The sprouting of reproductive buds was enhanced by shoot injury which was not affected by light or aeration Ambasht, In Victoria, Australia, seeds germinate and new shoots from underground lateral roots are produced in the spring, flowering occurs during spring and summer and top growth dies down in autumn Parsons and Cuthbertson, Under temperate climates in the USA, plants are deciduous in winter because the above-ground parts are killed by frost and sprouts start developing from the roots in spring Zimmerman, Reproductive Biology A.
In the sub-humid monsoon climate of the upper Gangetic plains, seeds of A. Fruits are formed in May in India, which remain attached on the spines of the plants throughout the rainy season when most leaves are shed. Seeds may remain viable in the soil for many years Kerr et al. The plant reproduces by seeds, but spreads primarily by vegetative propagation. Seeds are made water permeable by passage through the digestive tracts of ruminants, enhancing germination as well as helping to deposit them in moist and manured environments and many seedlings fail to survive without being embedded in manure Kerr et al.
From the callus of hairy roots, fertile plants regenerated with normal leaf morphology, stem growth and shallow extensive root system Wang et al. The regeneration of plants from the callus culture could have potential in breeding drought- and salt-resistant forage crops for arid and semi-arid regions Wang et al. Environmental Requirements A. It exhibits phreatophytic tendencies, preferring a high water table such as in saline meadows Jian Ni, , riverbanks Ambasht, and fallow croplands.
It can grow under a range of soil conditions including sand, silt and clay though it prefers calcareous soils, and grows at altitudes up to m. Associations In Steppe lands in Asia, A.
In China, A. It is a common constituent in grassland vegetation in Haryana, India Singh and Yadava, and forms an association with Chrozophora rottleri during the summer Ambasht, , In Iraq, A. In Syria, A. In the saline desert area of Arava valley, Israel, A.
In the salt marshes of Sinai, Egypt, A.
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This plant grows low to the ground with a maximum height of 4 feet, and the majority of the growth occurring underground to utilize any available water sources nearby. Camelothorn flowers in June and July with pink to red blossoms all over the plant. Stems are covered with spines or thorns and half moon seedpods are formed following the flowering season. Ecological Threat Camelthorn is an aggressive plant that is well known for out-competing native plant species and crops for water sources.
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