An AMV may be operated only if it is entirely free from gasoline leaks and class 3 diesel leaks. Class 3 diesel leaks are diesel fuel droplets that fall from the item being inspected or checked. Electric lamps used to examine or repair vehicles must meet the standards of the National Electric Codes or host-nation electric codes. When low temperatures prevent setting parking brakes, the wheels must be chocked firmly to prevent movement.
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Commanders will appoint a fire marshal, fire wardens, and a safety officer for each field site or bivouac area. A fire-prevention and -protection plan must be established for each site. Fire marshals will conduct periodic fire inspections in bivouac and maintenance areas. Fire marshals and safety officers will work together to ensure units provide personnel a predeployment briefing that includes the fire-prevention standards in this section.
TENTS a. Tents to billet personnel and store unit equipment and supplies will be set up in rows with a 2-meter clearance on all sides. A 9-meter clearance must be kept between a double row of tents and any other row of tents with frames. Tents must be set up away from roads and trails. Tent ropes should not be crossed.
Tent areas must be level and free of potholes, sharp rocks, and other hazards. Petroleum, oils, and lubricants POL storage areas will not be located within 50 feet of tents. When possible, POL storage areas must be located at a lower elevation than bivouac areas. Walking paths between tents must be planned and established. Camouflage nets must not touch space heater stovepipes in tents.
Stovepipe flaps must be rolled back and secured before stoves are operated. Vented heaters include forced-air heaters that have fuel, ignition, and heat sources located outside of tents and structures. Appendix E lists approved heaters with their descriptions.
If electric heaters are used outdoors or in a damp environment, a ground fault interrupter must be installed between the heater and the power source. TM provides operating instructions and preventive maintenance checklists for using M type I and II and M solid- or liquid-fuel space heaters. A fire extinguisher, shovel, and ax must be available at selected fire points.
Soldiers who do not receive training and who are not licensed will not install or operate space heaters. Boiling water may cause a sealed can to explode because of increased pressure as the liquid changes to vapor.
Commanders will brief fireguards on fire hazards and on conditions that may cause asphyxiation. Guards will remove fire and asphyxiation hazards. Tent heaters must be installed so that the straight vertical smoke pipe exits through the center of the appropriate tent opening.
The body of the heater must be oriented around the vertical axis of the smoke pipe so as to provide maximum possible clearance from the tent wall. Combustibles must be kept at least 4 feet from the heater. The M Yukon stove must be fueled only with gasoline. These wires should be attached to tent lines. These ties are combustible. Leaks must be corrected before continuing operation. Only qualified maintenance personnel will make repairs.
Equipment must be turned in through supply channels when local maintenance personnel are unable to make repairs. Only heaters with a ventilation system that is compatible with shielded tent-vent-stack openings will be used. The bases must be in a clear area, kept free of clothing and other combustible material, and marked. Commanders will publish SOPs that include the principles in this paragraph. A fire watch will be maintained for tents using gas- or liquid-fueled heaters when combustion takes place in the tent.
The watch will be briefed on alarm procedures, fire extinguishing, and early recognition of carbon-monoxide poisoning. Heaters will not be run unattended. Fuel tanks must be located outside tents and shelters with appropriate secondary containment.
Heaters must be set up by competent individuals familiar with leak-test procedures. Unit maintenance personnel will inspect heaters before they are used. Heaters must be fueled, used, and maintained according to manufacturers instructions.
FM addresses safety considerations and the layout for field-mess operations. Commanders will brief mess personnel on safety guidance in this pamphlet and FM , chapter Safety guidance includes proper operating procedures for using M2-burner units, storing flammable liquids, and controlling ignition sources.
Soldiers will change clothes before igniting burners if they spill fuel on their clothing while refueling any of the equipment described in subparagraphs b through d below. M2-Burner Units. This ensures escaping gas vapor does not ignite. Immersion Heaters. Diesel fuel will not be used. Gasoline Lanterns. If gasoline lanterns are not operated or maintained properly, tent fires, explosions, and personal injury may occur.
Nuts and caps on lanterns will be hand-tightened. The pressure seal on lanterns may rupture, allowing fuel to escape. Refuel only in an open, well-ventilated area.
The words must be in red letters on a white background. FM defines POL storage and handling procedures. POL vehicles must be bonded and grounded at field locations. Fire extinguishers must be located outside POL points storage locations.
Privately owned heating and cooking devices will not be used in tents, containers, buildings, or vehicles. Smoking is prohibited within 50 feet of vehicles carrying explosives or flammable fuels.
Fuel cans must have serviceable gaskets. Gasoline will not be used as a cleaning solvent or a fire starter. Cigarettes must be extinguished completely before they are discarded.
Designated smoking areas should have appropriate metal containers for disposal. Personnel will not smoke in beds, sleeping bags, or tents.
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